Got An Angry Kid? Parenting Spike: A Seriously Difficult Child (Growing with Love)

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While not without controversy Huxley et al. This appears to be a special case of the more general phenomenon of how environmental influences can be embedded in biology during critical and sensitive periods of development. In humans, the relationship between fetal growth, postnatal growth, and the risk of such diseases as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes have been frequently studied Bertram and Hanson, ; Barker, Both human epidemiological and animal experimental studies support the hypothesis that relative undernutrition in the fetus results in significant and relatively permanent changes in important physiological systems Nathanielsz, Perinatal programming indicates that sensitive or critical periods of development may have lifelong effects and influence the development of chronic diseases later in life Ingelfinger, However, it does not discount the potential effect of the external environment Seckl, ; Ingelfinger and Woods, ; Falkner, ; Roseboom et al.


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Fetal undernutrition is believed to induce persistent changes in several metabolic pathways, but the exact mechanisms are only now being pieced together through a range of animal experiments and human measurement studies Seckl, ; Barker, Because it is likely that events occurring at other times modify prior influences, there is a growing interest in understanding the predisease pathways and biological changes that occur prior to the recognition of a vast array of clinical outcomes. Currently many of these predisease markers are either below current limits of detection or produce changes that are not currently measured on a routine basis Lucas et al.

Examples of such programming during particular sensitive or critical periods of development are coming to light. For example, low numbers of nephrons are associated with hypertension, and it has been shown that individuals whose mothers experienced severe protein-calorie malnutrition during the third trimester, when nephron development takes place, are most at risk of hypertension Roseboom et al. Outcomes associated with programming early in life may also promote health. For example, rats receiving high levels of licking and grooming as pups are less fearful compared with rats that received low levels of licking and grooming Francis et al.

The mechanism for this change in behavioral programming appears to be the influence of maternal licking on gene expression during a critical period of development and subsequent changes in the development of synaptic receptor sites for specific neurotransmitters Francis et al. Similar environmental influences on the development of behavioral pathways have been described in rhesus monkeys Champoux et al.

In contrast, disruption of maternal bonding during infancy has been shown to have profound negative effects on later relationships National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, Some behaviors are planned and deliberate; others are reflexive, impulsive, and contingent on environmental circumstances. Examples include social and interactional behaviors e. Health-related behaviors may be health promoting those that increase the likelihood of future health, such as regular balanced diet and exercise or health impairing those that adversely cause actual morbidity or mortality, such as smoking, drinking, or reckless driving.

A body of recent research suggests how these behaviors develop and describes the role of family, peers, and social environment, including media, in shaping this developmental process Tinsley, While behaviors like smoking, drinking, and exercise are known to affect later health, it is not clear how these behaviors develop in childhood McGinnis and Foege, Often these health behaviors are considered proxies for health, even though they may not necessarily constitute health per se.

Some health policies attempt to change youth behaviors that are thought to affect health.


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For example, parenting style, family traditions, and peer influences affect not only fairly simple youth behaviors, such as compliance with behavioral requests or participation in health prevention programs Patterson and Fisher, , but also more complex behaviors, such as participation with disease management regimens.

For example, research on both adults and children has shown direct relationships between internal attitudinal and personality factors and health outcomes, perhaps through mechanisms that link internal emotions, attitudes, and beliefs with stress reactions and immune responses Berry and Worthington, ; Herbert and Cohen, ; Kiecolt-Glaser, , Lawler et al. Thus, external events perceived as stressful by a child may function as triggers for an asthma or inflammatory bowel disease flare, over and above any biological exposure or adherence to therapy Rietveld and Prins, ; Santos et al.

This research has solid empirical support in both the adult human and animal research fields McEwen, ; Seeman et al. The hallmark of childhood is the constant exposure to new developmental challenges. As children acquire new physical and cognitive skills and experiences, their behaviors change. They explore, practice, and experiment and as a result they change and are changed. The resulting behaviors are both manifestations of their health and have significant implications for it. At each new exposure, the child may respond in a variety of ways that in turn unleash a variety of reactions in his or her caregiver and in others around him.

They suckle more in response to it Mehler et al. Thus the beginnings of attachment are initiated. One of the first developmental challenges faced by an infant is adaptation to extrauterine life. Low-birthweight infants experience more difficult transitions and are more likely to be fussy during social interactions and less likely to smile and vocalize Beckwith and Rodning, ; Barnard and Kelly, Attempts to make this transition are met with a variety of parental and cultural responses, all of which influence infants in ways that facilitate or impede their development.

Nearly a quarter of infants respond to new stimuli in a negative fashion Kagan et al. Emotional development and the establishment of social relationships are among the greatest challenges of infancy and early childhood. Emotions are fundamental for human attachments, social interactions, and self-satisfaction. Therefore, the extent to which infants evoke sympathetic and empathetic emotions in others and eventually develop these emotional expressions themselves greatly influences their subsequent health. Children who do not attain these skills are more likely to encounter rejection from caretakers and peers Dodge et al.

The complex interplay of genetics, parenting, and societal reactions illustrates just how precarious the early years are and how central infant behavior is for subsequent health Rutter, The effects of individual, family, and community attitudes and beliefs on health behavior have been well described. A substantial body of research has been conducted on issues related to adherence to treatment regimens, both among parents of younger children and among adolescents McQuaid et al. In addition, these theories help explain why and how child compliance may be positively or adversely affected by peer and family support LaGreca and Bearman, ; LaGreca et al.

The effect of and the need for support may vary as a function of age Steinberg, Research has documented the impact of chronic illness on child and adolescent adjustment DiMatteo, ; Kyngas et al. Not infrequently, depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, or other adjustment difficulties may ensue as a result of the underlying illness, increasing risk for treatment nonadherence Wise et al. The importance of cognitive ability and understanding inappropriate health-related behaviors must also be considered.

Over time they acquire the capacity to conceptualize and understand the longer term consequences of their behaviors on their health Thomas et al. Conversely, children with developmental disabilities or impaired language ability often show increased difficulties in adhering to necessary behaviors, including health-maintaining ones Stansbury and Zimmerman, While attitudinal, motivational, cognitive, and emotional factors may all exert direct effects on health-related behaviors, the role of environmental factors in these behaviors should not be underestimated.

Cultural construction of health and disease may also affect compliance with certain treatments by both parents and children. According to findings from the Global Burden of Disease study, these behavioral aspects of health are likely to exert even greater prominence in coming decades, as behavioral and life-style-related health conditions e.

Complicating this point, however, is the fact that certain behaviors and emotions can serve both as health influences and outcomes. These include chemical, biological, and physical influences that exert their impact by being taken into the body e. The built environment affects the ways in which children are differentially exposed to some of these influences. Exposure is the sum of all exposure factors over the course of time, including the home, school, child care, and play areas. Although exposures of the ovum or the sperm prior to conception may have profound health effects on a child, including development of an abnormal fetus, 1 in this section we focus on prenatal influences.

In most cases, exposures of the fetus are from maternal exposure. Exposures of the mother during pregnancy can come from many sources; common sources include maternal occupation, substance use, diet and water consumption, and paraoccupation occupational chemicals or other hazards brought home by other family members. The strongest workplace exposure associations are lead, mercury, organic solvents, ethylene oxide, and ionizing radiation and poor reproductive outcome, including birth defects Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry, ; Schardein, Use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs also have harmful effects.

Tobacco use during pregnancy is a major cause of fetal and newborn morbidity and mortality small for gestational age, persistent pulmonary hypertension, sudden infant death syndrome, poorer intellectual functioning Nicholl, ; Golding, ; Day et al. Environmental Protection Agency, ; Bearer et al. Heavy drinking during pregnancy is the cause of fetal alcohol syndrome FAS , the leading known cause of mental retardation Abel and Sokol, ; Sokol, Delaney-Black, and Nordstrom, Conservative estimates place the incidence of FAS at 0.

More common effects include alcohol-related birth defects, alcohol-related neuro-developmental defects, and subtle effects on a variety of behavioral, educational, and psychological tests resulting from low to moderate levels of drinking during pregnancy Institute of Medicine, While the effects of maternal prenatal use of cocaine, opiates, and methamphetamines on infant cognitive development and behavior remain controversial owing to confounding environmental factors Bays, ; Tronick and Beeghly, , the effects on maternal-infant interactions are more established Breiter et al.

There are multiple short critical periods during the development of a fetus when a short, acute exposure may cause a problem. For this reason, exposures need to be tracked as highs and lows on a daily basis rather than as monthly averages. For example, water quality is regulated by monthly averages.

However, a daily peak may exceed a threshold of concern and still be within the regulatory limit. A recent review concluded that neural tube defects and small-for-gestational-age births are moderately associated with contaminated drinking water i. Oral clefts, cardiac defects, and complete nasal obstruction choanal atresia were found in studies evaluating trichloroethylene-contaminated drinking water Bove et al.

Food may also contain environmental teratogens. A well-known example is the epidemic of cerebral palsy that followed maternal consumption of fish contaminated with organic mercury in Minimata Bay, Japan Harada, Characterization of exposures over time depends on developmental stage and the mechanism by which the agent produces its effect EPA exposure guidelines, Multiple types of exposure may interact to produce their effect by the same mechanism, as for example the exposure to multiple insecticides that interfere with cholinesterases National Research Council, Children have unique susceptibilities to chemical exposures see Box Children are more susceptible than adults to chemical exposures, and their exposure varies, depending on their physical location, breathing zones, oxygen consumption, types and amount of more Six outdoor air pollutants are regulated by the Clean Air Act: The effects of repeated or long-term exposure to outdoor air pollutants on the developing lungs of children are not well understood.

Indoor air pollution, which is generally not regulated one notable exception being laws prohibiting indoor smoking in public spaces , results primarily from 1 the products of combustion, such as CO, nitrogen dioxide, particulates, and sulfur dioxides; 2 volatile organic compounds, such as formaldehyde, benzene, and trichloroethylene; 3 the products of tobacco smoking approximately 3, chemicals ; and 4 molds. Health effects from these diverse indoor air pollutants include respiratory irritation with cough and wheezing, exacerbation of asthma, allergic responses, cancer, and central nervous system effects headache, nausea American Academy of Pediatrics, Exposure to asbestos, leading to lung cancer, is also a concern due to the prevalence of asbestos in schools and some homes U.

Some water pollutants are biological agents, some are chemical agents, and some are radionuclides physical agents. Biological agents generally come from fecal contamination and include such bacteria as salmonella and E. Chemicals in water include such metals as lead, mercury, and arsenic, such natural toxins as Pfiesteria toxins, organic chemicals including pesticides, PCBs, trichloroethylene, and chlorination by-products, such inorganic ions as nitrates, and such radionuclides as radon.

Systems affected by these contaminants include the central nervous system, the gastrointestinal system, and the hematological system. Many of these chemicals are also carcinogens.

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Children have been found to be at higher relative risk of gastrointestinal illness from contaminated water Wade et al. In addition, children are both more highly exposed and more susceptible to the contaminants found in water. Food contaminants can be broadly categorized as either pathogenic or toxic. Pathogenic agents include bacteria, viruses or parasites, bacterial toxins, aquatic organisms that elaborate toxins, and toxins that accumulate in the food chain, such as domoic acid.

Toxic chemicals in food can be divided into three categories: Particular effects of food contaminants on children include such behavior changes as hyperactivity Carter et al. Children also are a demographic subgroup prone to infectious diseases because of their exploratory behavior, lack of prior exposure to most infectious agents, and association with other children. Substantial advances in vaccines have reduced rates of many infectious diseases during the past decades. Children are highly exposed and susceptible to some infections that are spread by droplets from coughing and sneezing.

Respiratory syncytial virus, the leading cause of serious upper and lower respiratory tract infection in infants and children, accounts for , hospitalizations and deaths annually in the United States, and it may predispose children to asthma later in life. Annual epidemics occur from November to April, and virtually all infants are infected by age 2 Black, Cytomegalovirus infection is spread in child care centers through both urine and saliva containing live virus; rates for preschool-age children in the United States range from approximately 5 to 30 percent Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Children are also particularly susceptible to other infectious agents, such as rotavirus and Norwalk virus, salmonella, and E.

H7, which cause diarrhea and dehydration and sometimes severe complications. Children are also more highly exposed to vector-borne e. Vector-borne pathogens include Lyme disease, highest among 5—9-year-olds Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a , and Rocky Mountain spotted fever, most prevalent under age 10 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, b. Some arboviruses, which are transmitted by different species of mosquitoes, preferentially infect the young e.

Cat scratch disease, carried by cats, has an estimated annual incidence of 22, cases, with the highest age-specific incidence in children less than age Up to 25 percent of these cases result in severe systemic illness Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a. Children appear to be routinely exposed to more noise than the recommended upper limit proposed by the U.

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Noise-induced hearing loss in one or both ears among children ages 6 to 19 was found to be In a sample of 1, children, 1 in 20 school-age children had minimal sensorineural hearing loss and 37 percent of the children with this hearing loss failed at least one grade K—12 Bess et al. Even mild hearing loss is associated with increased social and emotional dysfunction among school-age children. Noise exposure in childhood is associated with a stress response Tafalla and Evans, —in male college students , headaches Odegaard et al. Exposure to ultraviolet B radiation from sunlight exposure and the use of tanning equipment during childhood can result in substantial morbidity and mortality later in life.

Health risks from exposure vary with skin type and include sunburn, skin cancer the most common malignant neoplasm in the U. Approximately 80 percent of lifetime sun exposure occurs before the age of Episodic high exposures sufficient to cause sunburn, particularly during childhood and adolescence, increase the risk of melanoma Saraiya et al. Ionizing radiation comes from both natural and manmade sources. Natural sources include radon, cosmic radiation, and ingested radon and fallout.

Manmade sources include medical X-rays and some consumer products. Housing conditions can contribute to the incidence of asthma, injuries, and lead poisoning Manuel, As children age, they spend more time in physical locations outside the home, such as child care, school, and workplace settings that expose them to new physical environments. School-age children spend 35 to 50 hours per week in and around school buildings. In some communities, schools have been built on relatively undesirable land, such as landfill sites like Love Canal. Schools are often located on old industrial sites or near highways, resulting in exposure to auto emissions and air pollution Frumkin, Many school buildings are old and poorly maintained, leading to exposures to air pollutants, radon, asbestos, pesticides, and lead Etzel and Balk, General Accounting Office reported that 20 percent of primary and secondary schools had indoor air quality problems; more than half had environmental pollutant or building ventilation problems that could affect air quality U.

General Accounting Office, Environmental Protection Agency, Asbestos, used extensively in schools until the s, was still present in more than 8, schools in , potentially exposing over 3 million students U. Many adolescents have jobs that may expose them to occupational hazards Pollack et al.

Every year, at least 70 children die from work-related incidents Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and more than 65, are injured severely enough to seek care in emergency departments Brooks et al. Under the Fair Labor Standards Act of , which regulates work hours and safety, children younger than 18 are prohibited from working with hazardous chemicals in nonagricultural jobs.

Prohibitions on chemical work in agriculture extend only to age 16, and work by children and adolescents on their own family farms is unregulated at the national level. For each death, many more experience nonfatal injury Rivara and Barber, , usually from farm machinery or exposure to toxins. Injuries are the leading cause of death among children between ages 1 and 19, accounting for more deaths than homicide, suicide, congenital anomalies, cancer, heart disease, respiratory illness, and HIV combined Centers for Disease Control, 10 leading causes of death, Although the total number of unintentional injury deaths has declined by more than 40 percent during the past 20 years CDC Injury Mortality Stats , the rates of childhood injury are much higher in the United States when compared with other developed countries.

In , unintentional injuries consttuted 70 percent of all injury deaths to children and adolescents 0 to 20 years in the United States National Center for Health Statistics, As injury deaths continue to decline, nonfatal injuries continue to be important causes of child morbidity and disability and substantially reduce quality of life, especially among adolescents. However, it should be noted that data collection on nonfatal injuries is incomplete. The American Academy of Pediatrics has conducted extensive reviews of the literature to establish the evidence-based recommendations in The Injury Prevention Program, an age-appropriate prevention education program www.

Recommendations include counseling parents on use of infant car seats, never leaving infants and toddlers alone in pools or bathtubs, the use of safety equipment for in-line skating and skateboarding, and firearm safety. The use of playground equipment is the leading cause of injuries to children in school and child care environments, with , children receiving emergency department care annually for injuries sustained on playgrounds Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a. Factors influencing playground injury prevention include supervision, age-appropriateness of equipment, suitable fall surfaces, and equipment maintenance.

Supervision has been shown to be inconsistent, age appropriateness is infrequently indicated, and many playgrounds have had equipment with significant safety issues Sibbald, Automobile crashes are the leading cause of death among children over a year old. In , 2, children under age 15 were killed in traffic crashes, including 1, who were passengers, who were pedestrians, and who were on bicycles. That same year, , children under 15 years of age were injured in traffic crashes, including , who were passengers and 22, who were pedestrians.

On an average day, 6 children are killed and are injured in motor vehicle crashes. The determinants of motor-vehicle-related injuries and fatalities are well recognized. Some relate to behavioral issues, such as speeding, failing to yield to pedestrians at crossings, and driving while intoxicated; others relate to automobile design and features, including impact absorption, seat belts, air bags, and similar features.

Still others relate to roadway features. Public health interventions addressing these factors, from seat belts to traffic signals and from law enforcement to public education and the development of bike paths, have achieved dramatic reductions in injury and fatality rates Rivara, The built environment may be defined as the part of the physical environment created by human actions—buildings and parks, roads and trails, neighborhoods and cities. This section illustrates the importance of the built environment by describing how land use and related transportation patterns that characterize an entire metropolitan area affect injuries, air quality, and physical activity patterns Frumkin, The built environment contributes to motor-vehicle-related morbidity and mortality among children by creating places that rely heavily on increasing driving time in cars and by developing certain kinds of roads that may be unusually hazardous for drivers, pedestrians, or both.

Modern suburban roads may be especially dangerous. In general, the prevention of injury by one-time structural changes, such as highway or automobile engineering, is more effective than actions that require repeated use, such as bicycle helmets Layde et al. The epidemiology of pedestrian injuries among children has been well studied and includes several factors that relate directly to the built environment: Large boulevards are riskier than residential streets Kraus et al. However, the effect of residential density is complex Rivara and Barber, ; Rao et al. Across the country, the pattern seen for driver and passenger fatalities is repeated for pedestrian fatalities, with lower annual rates in denser cities National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Data from Atlanta show that as that city has sprawled in recent years, the pedestrian fatality rate increased even as the national rate declined slightly Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a.

The most dangerous stretches of road were those with multiple lanes, high speeds, no sidewalks, long distances between intersections or crosswalks, and roadways lined with large commercial establishments and apartment blocks Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a.

Spending too much time at work when their children are young is a parent's chief regret

Reviews of injury prevention from motor vehicles in children focus almost entirely on seat belts, car seats, air bags, and other engineering approaches or on law enforcement and education Pitt et al. Primary prevention, in contrast, includes strategies for traffic calming Roberts et al. These strategies all relate directly to features of the built environment.

In environments where automobiles and trucks are the principal means of transportation, the emissions from these mobile sources figure prominently as a source of air pollution. Although vehicle engines have become far cleaner in recent decades, the sheer quantity of vehicle miles releases large amounts of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons into the air.

Nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, combined with sunlight, form ozone. Cars and trucks account for a substantial amount of the emissions of such chemicals. Ozone levels do not vary over a small scale, from block to block. A child in the suburbs may sustain ozone exposure that is as high as, or even higher than, the exposures of an inner-city child. In contrast, particulate matter less than 2.

A child living near a busy intersection or near a heavily traveled truck route may sustain considerably more particulate exposure than a child living in a quieter neighborhood several blocks away. Children who live, attend school, or play near busy roads or in crowded urban areas, where they are exposed to the exhaust from automobiles and trucks, may experience acute and chronic respiratory effects.

In addition, children who live in metropolitan areas with heavy traffic, especially in parts of the country conducive to ozone formation for biogeophysical and meteorological reasons, may be exposed to high levels of ozone during the warm months of the year. The built environment plays a major role in promoting or hampering physical activity in children. Schools, parks, and even sidewalks that are integrated into the design of a community can encourage physical activity. For example, physical activity among youth increases when schools offer such facilities as basketball courts and sports fields Frumkin, Environmental Protection Agency, ; Holtzclaw et al.

Humans are social creatures. While social influences are important for children of all ages, their nature and form change over the course of childhood.

Got an Angry Kid? Parenting Spike: A Seriously Difficult Child by Andrew D. Gibson

Family demographics Socioeconomic status. Family influences include both family demography and processes. Return to Book Page. Preview — Got an Angry Kid? Got an Angry Kid? A Seriously Difficult Child 3. Does your family live in conflict? Have you lost or nearly lost control of your child? If you answered YES to any of these three things, then PACT can help you as it has helped thousands of other families restore Does your family live in conflict? If you answered YES to any of these three things, then PACT can help you as it has helped thousands of other families restore love and integrity to their relationships!

It's the best hard work I've ever done. PACT was the light at the end of the tunnel for us. PACT is my best chance to [create] change. PACT is putting life into my parenting and does what three years of residential placement didn't. For more information, visit www. Parenting - Child Rearing Paperback , pages. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Got an Angry Kid?

Parenting Spike , please sign up. Be the first to ask a question about Got an Angry Kid? Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Jan 07, Laura rated it it was amazing. Rivalry in families causes stress and breakdown. When a parent loses control of a child and a child is angry and unresponsive, parents get desperate and things get out of hand.

Is there a solution? Gibson definitely thinks there is an effective one and he's written a book about it. Out of everything I have seen in this field, this is one of the best behavior management programs Rivalry in families causes stress and breakdown. Almost six in ten with more than one child said they had changed their approach with their second child to make sure they did not end up with the same regrets.

In addition to working too hard, the top five regrets included worrying too much about things that did not really matter, not playing with the children more, not going on more holidays and not taking enough photos. More than half of parents said they regretted not having more quality time with their children when they were younger. And 63 per cent of parents wish they did more activities with their child, such as teaching them to swim or playing a sport.

The survey of 2, parents found 63 per cent wish they had done more activities with their child. Lauren Revell, from Huggies Little Swimmers, which commissioned the research, said: And two thirds admit they would do things different if they could relive the period again. Not playing with them enough, not going on more family holidays and not taking enough photos over the years completed the top five.

More than half of parents also said they regret not having more quality time with their children when they were younger. Other regrets include not going on once in a lifetime holidays like Disneyworld or Lapland, missing milestones like their first steps or words and waiting too long before teaching them to swim.

The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. Spending too much time at work when the children were young is a parent's biggest regret Two thirds admit they would do things differently if they could have the time again By Daily Mail Reporter Published: Share this article Share.

Got an Angry Kid? Parenting Spike: A Seriously Difficult Child

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